Posted on Monday, February 28, 2022
The main difference is that while rolling forces the metal to flow into a different shape, sheet metal forming works by causing deformation in the material overall, with minimal effect on the grain structure or the thickness of the material.
Sheet metal forming typically takes place at room temperature. It is the process by which pieces of sheet metal are altered and reformed without removing any of the original material—rolling as well as forging and extrusion work differently because they apply forces to the material to pressure it into flowing into a new shape. With sheet metal forming, a force is created, causing the metal to deform, and this then makes the metal more malleable so it can be bent, stretched, and folded into a massive variety of different and often highly complex designs.
Bending and forming are not dissimilar. Bending is a kind of metal forming, where forming is a kind of metal fabrication. By understanding the critical differences between the two, you will decide which process is the optimal route for your project.
The rolling, forming, and extrusion processes can all be performed above room temperature, where sheet metal forming will take place at room temperature in most instances. The grain size will also likely be improved during rolling, forging, and extrusion (though not always during extrusion), where the material's grain size does not improve during sheet metal forming.
Roll Forging is a process that works to reduce the cross-sectional area and alter the dimensions of heated bars, billets, or plates. This is achieved by passing the material between two driven rolls rotating in opposite directions. Each roll has at least one matching impression.
Rolling involves passing metal between rollers to reduce the thickness of the material to a pre-determined size. The process utilizes a hammer and anvil or a drop hammer in larger machinery. Rolling can be achieved hot or cold. The cold method is often employed if the desired result is to toughen or harden the metal.
Extrusion works to create various components in a process that pushes or draws material through a die of the desired cross-section.
Lots of different materials can be manipulated this way, including, aluminum, polymers, and ceramic. Extrusion can either be hot-extrusion or cold-extrusion.
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